Digital Iris examination equipment
(All about PIXELS)
This article is written by Leo Bongaards
Most readers of this article would know that the
iris (and sclera) reveals most if not ALL regarding the
physical and mental health of a person. Although there are still
many different opinions and ways of
interpreting the information, all do agree
that the better the image of the eye the more accurate the
interpretation can be.
New graduates looking for
equipment may not have experienced all
the types of equipment
available and many have little practical
Diagnosis and teaching at the
college may have been done from slides and photographs and the use of a magnifier
old pioneers of iridology used a magnifying glass and light to
observe the markings
and colouring of the iris as well until better equipment became
This equipment consisted of an iriscope with a lighting system (usually referred to as a
slit lamp), similar to that which is used by
opthamoligists.This type of equipment is really
the best equipment to use, as it allows one to see all the
markings depth and colours in the iris and sclera.
The view is multi dimensional, because
the 2 eyes we have for sight are in different locations
in our head. The two slightly different images are
put together in our brain to give us the
ability to judge distances and see depth. So
one can observe the depth of a
radii solaris or nerve ring, or the ANW (Collarette) standing on
edge like a flower, psoric spots on the surface and toxins
interwoven into the fibers.
Ideally Students must be taught using this type
of equipment before moving on to single dimension equipment like
Just ponder this example: If one had
an eye injury and one eye had a patch
over it, you would still be able to drive
a car reasonably well, as the
brain remembers how far away you are from
the car in front from experience.
However a person
born with one working
eye only sees one dimension
so if the brain never had the luxury of
receiving stereo images no information is
available to judge distances or see
Looking at an iris image on the monitor screen provides
you with the opportunity to see every fiber and colour clearly but
you can not see depth,
it is the experience gained by looking at eyes
in stereo (three dimensional) (with the slitlight type microscope)
that makes the correct interpreting of the image possible.
If you wonder why we don’t have stereo
monitors, no one has been able to design one yet that did not need
Maybe we will have 3D iris images by using
special glasses soon or one day we may have holographic images as depicted in science fiction
Practitioners that have worked with “slitlamp
iriscopes” with a
camera attached have had the perfect training as they see the
correlation between the
stereo and flat image over and over again every
day of the week with every patient they see. These practitioners are
in the best position
to diagnose from photographs and (single
This brings us
to digital iriscope imagery.
Camera manufactures are falling over them selves to
out-do and under-price the competition. Digital cameras are becoming
better and cheaper by the
day, just as we reached the pinnacle of film
based photography, the CCD was invented.
This is a device that breaks up
the image it 'sees'
into a matrix of electronic dots. Imagine many
chess boards put together and miniaturized to the size
of one of your little finger's nail. The electronic dots are stored
into a memory chip consisting of
millions of on/off switches ( no film is required ).
for more details on how the CCD works.
The latest domestic digital cameras may have a CCD with
a number of image dots or pixels per photographs may
The higher the number of dots, the sharper the
photo so even when enlarged, it is hard to see the dots at all, but
if you put a magnifying glass
over a photograph or
your TV or computer screen you can see "dots",
rectangular or square blocks,
clearly, on the screen they are in clusters of 3
(Triads) to make full colour images
possible. So every 3 dots, Red, Green, Blue, form one distinctly
coloured Pixel or image
How many pixels do we need for a good image?
Well the more pixels the better the
picture will be.
And the smaller the pixels the more
may fit into a given
TV images are produced by following a standard, which
was agreed upon in the 1940’s, Technology has come a long way since
then, however the
system has not been changed
Digital TV transmissions are now
being introduced and in 2013 all the old Analog transmissions will have been phased out.
The current USA TV screen can show
only (720x480) 153,200
Australia we have the European PAL system,
which has 215,500 pixels (768x576)
Only 0.2 Megapixels
Yes ! Video and TV Screens have
less than ¼ Mp
So why do we have a pixel
Your computer screen is a little better, but the
LCD screen you are looking at right now is only capable of
showing between 0.7
– 1.3 MP. The new High Definition
Television (HDTV) has a resolution of 1920x1080 or 2
Mp. When this HDTV system is
universal and in
general use, the camera manufactures are expected to change the
camera output to this system. Some cameras are already fitted with a
A 15" VGA screen (640x480)
has a 0.3 Megapixel display. A SVGA (800x600) has
around 0.5 million pixels.
The best 19" XVGA has 1024x768 pixels or
The latest 21' professional
monitor has 1280x1024 pixels or 1.3Mp (SXGA)
A pixel or picture element, is
composed of three sub-pixels in the
primary colours of red, green, and blue. At each pixel position in
an AMLCD (active matrix liquid crystal
display) flat screen monitor, three
cells of liquid crystal material
form the red, green and blue sub
pixels that together allow the full
range of colours to be displayed.
Individual transistors are
arranged in an array on the rear glass to control each sub- pixel.
An anomaly or break-down of any one of these
individual transistors will cause a bright or dark pixel to appear.
A standard LCD screen
exhibits less then 8 non-performing or
dead pixels, this would equate to an
extremely small 0.00026 percent of the total sub-pixel failure!
From the above example
you can see how good the LCD quality is
So how do we fit up to 12.1 Million pixel
images from a camera onto a
0.2 – 1 MP screen?
One would expect to have to throw out lots of
information…. and Yes that is true.
I have seen images, made with an 14MP
Camera that look absolutely shocking on screen..
without making this article into a bookwork of technical formulas it
comes down to this:
The system is only as
good as the weakest link. So let us have a look at the CAMERA,
PRINTER and MONITOR
* The camera is
rated in Mega Pixels say from 3 to 12
* Domestic printers are rated in
dots per inch 300x300 – 1200x1200, This
equates to 2MP and for an 6x4 photo image.
* Monitors are now mostly rated in pixel
size and may have names like XVGA, SVGA The best 21' monitor on the
domestic market today can only display around 1.3 Mp and
to display this number of pixels there needs to be, a capture card
capable of capturing this amount of pixels, the best I have seen advertised so far is only
capable of capturing 1.3 MP divide
this number by 3 to arrive at the actual number of pixels shown.
What is the logic of all this ?
I would say that a good camera with 3 – 4 MP
is very suitable. This allows you to print 6x4 pictures of excellent
quality and A4 size
in good quality.
There wouldn’t be
many iridologists that would want to
print each eye on wall-poster
Is it a fluke that EYERONEC came up with
the package they now have
for sale ?
NO around 50 cameras and
configurations were tested before a decision was made to
use Canon Digital Cameras, the top quality
Canon photo printer
and a Video Monitor, for instant viewing.
Getting all the components to work
together and all to fit into a carry case is an on-going challenge. We still
search the world over to make sure we can maintain the supply of
If you have a computer and lots of time
and a patient that is not in a hurry, you can with other company's
iridology cameras, capture images, by taking the picture looking
through a tiny view finder, download
the image by connecting a cable or taking the memory card out of the
camera and run the software and finally view it on
a computer monitor, which may have a
slightly better resolution than a Video Monitor,
but in my view the diagnosis would be exactly the same
as diagnosing from the Video monitor.
These systems do not
allow for pre-viewing or live images so only AFTER you download the
image can you see the actual photo. The flash often spoils the image
as the bright light may reflect from shiny surfaces.
This problem only shows up AFTER you have
taken the picture.
With the EyeRonec system you capture the image
by viewing the live VIDEO image BEFORE you take the
shot. It takes less than 20 seconds to have both images in
You can than view the images on the large
monitor or if you really want to use a computer, download the
images via the USB cable to the computer in
digital format with the full amount of Pixels for storage or
manipulation or to import the
iris images into an Iris software
Printed pictures will always be of
better quality than the image on the monitor screen and they
may be stored in the patients file for later reference.
However if you store images on the
computer you need lots of memory unless the image is reduced or
(which means less pixels !) and
how will you later compare stored
images with the new images, when the
patient presents again? Split screen?
Yes possible with
special software, but the size
would then not be much larger than your 6x4 photograph
and certainly NOT as sharp!. Can you see the
*Digital "Still" cameras with LIVE Video output are the
best camera to base
an iriscope system on because it produces instant
(live) images on a large screen and the recorded image will look
Taking the picture takes
no more than 10 seconds
That is IF YOU CAN SEE THE IMAGE ON A LARGE
it totally does away
with fiddling with computers or trying to focus with a 1” mini
screen or looking through a tiny view finder. Magnification
with an EyeRonec system to
well over 200x is possible,